Livestock and climate change: Where the BIG opportunities lie

One way by which small scale livestock herders can adapt to a changing climate is by shifting focus to more adapted, drought tolerant and native fodder species. An example we identified can be read here

ILRI news


Some of our biggest opportunities for both reducing and coping with climate change lie among the one billion poor people raising farm animals across the developing world (ILRI poster).

Systems analyst and livestock-climate change scientist Philip Thornton of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) says livestock systems in developing countries remain understudied. This even though livestock keepers, whether pastoral herders or ‘mixed’ crop-livestock farmers, are essential to development destinies in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where the world’s poverty and hunger remain the most concentrated.

The good news is that there are many ways small-scale livestock keepers can adapt to the changing climate, e.g. by making their production more efficient—a triple win for raising household incomes, reducing greenhouse gas emissions per unit of product and coping with variable climates.

The bad news is we still haven’t reliably reckoned the costs and benefits of many livestock adaptation options in developing countries.

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Call for abstracts: Conference on policies for competitive smallholder livestock production

Competitive Smallholder Livestock in Botswana

The Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis (BIDPA) in collaboration with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) will hold a conference on 26-28 November 2014 in Gaborone, Botswana with the theme: Policies for competitive smallholder livestock production.

The conference aims to provide an opportunity for African and international scientists and the broader stakeholder groups in the livestock production sector to discuss competitiveness in livestock production systems and improving the livelihoods of livestock farmers, especially smallholders, with emphasis on southern Africa.

The broader objectives of the conference are to gather researchers, policymakers and development partners working in the area of assessing competitiveness in agricultural food production and marketing, and to provide answers to various questions rotating around four thematic areas.

It is hoped that at the end of the conference, there will be specific recommendations for the key questions and how to enhance the competitiveness…

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The difference one tree can make

Here is another reminder that ‘indigenous tree species’, though not as fast growing as the exotic ones, may hold the secrets for successful rehabilitation.
This Post was originally written by Kathleen Buckingham

Trees have become an iconic image of environmentalism, but that doesn’t necessarily mean we should plant millions of them.

While scale is important for landscape restoration, we need to reconsider quality and not just quantity. When does the presence of a tree really make a difference, and when is it neither an environmental or economical solution to a host of complex issues? What are the implications for food security, biodiversity and landscape protection?

First, we need to take a step back—why shouldn’t we count the trees? Planting hundreds or even millions of trees does not automatically translate into an increase in the overall long-term tree population. To increase population levels, survival and planting rates have to outweigh losses from tree mortality and removal.
babao tree

The difference one tree can make.

Livestock digestion released more methane than oil and gas industry in 2004

By Alexandra Branscombe

WASHINGTON, DC – Livestock were the single largest source of methane gas emissions in the United States in 2004, releasing 70 percent more of the powerful greenhouse gas into the atmosphere than the oil and gas industry, according to a new study.

The new findings based on satellite data from 2004 provide the clearest picture yet of methane emissions over the entire U.S. They show human activities released more of the gas into the atmosphere than previously thought and the sources of these emissions could be much different than government estimates.

Livestock digestion released more methane than oil and gas industry in 2004

The contribution of livestock to methane emissions was 40 percent higher in 2004 than what the federal government had previously estimated for that year based on industry reports, while emissions from the oil and gas industry were lower than these government estimates, according to the new study published last month in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, a publication of the American Geophysical Union.

Livestock, such as cows and pigs, released 70 percent more methane into the atmosphere than the oil and gas industry in 2004, according to a recent study in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. The new study also found that the EPA underestimated the amount of methane emissions from livestock for that year by 40 percent.
Credit: Flickr/kqedquest

Hydroponic fodder production for smallholder livestock farmers

This is a young man trying the ‘unwalked path’ in the filed of forage production. His courage and creativity is examplary. However, universities and research institutions in the region should help in clarifying the economics of the new system with regard to local context. Moreover, the system can further be developed and refined to make it flexibly adaptive to current realities in the region known for its emaciated and low productivity livestock.


There is a broad consensus that most smallholder agricultural systems in Africa are far from being 21st century agriculture. Measured by multiple criteria including the use of technologies, application of inputs, and organizational and institutional set ups required for modern production, processing and marketing of agricultural produces, smallholder agriculture in Ethiopia is not exceptional. Focusing on the educated young ergeneration farming community has the potential to modernize traditional farming.

Behaylu Abraha is a young university graduate who owns and manages ‘YB Plant Micro Propagation PLC’ – a small family business engaged in hydroponic technologies in Mekelle. After working for a private tissue culture company for seven years, he decided to set up a private business in hydroponics (fodder, mushrooms, vegetables, and certified pre-basic and basic potato seeds) in a 420 m2 rented residential house. The actual effective area used for hydroponic fodder production is 160 m2.

Hydroponic fodder production involves…

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Pastureland management and improvement of livestock feed productivity in arid and semi-arid areas: lessons from a training workshop with livestock experts in Tigray, northern Ethiopia

• Free grazing is the main challgenge for livestock feed and over all agricultural productivity improvement and environmental protection
• While lack of knowledge and skills is an important limitation in the field of livestock feed development, lack of right attitude and behavior among farmers and development agents and lack of commitment for change on the side of local government is the main limitation

From 6 to 12 April 2014, we held a training workshop at Wurkro, Eastern Tigray, on the subject of forage development and pastureland management. The workshop was organized by GIZ and BoARD of Tigray regional state. It was a very interesting and lively week where, 40 trainees who happen to be livestock and forage development experts from different districts in Tigray, were also given extensive opportunities to voice their views and share their knowledge and practical experience.

We dealt with a lot of theoretical and practical issues in livestock feeding including: brief introduction to basic concepts of animal nutrition, available feed resources in Tigray and challenges and opportunities for their improvement, forage plant physiology and growth cycle, ration formulation, feed quality enhancement technologies, measuring forage biomass production from pasturelands and silvopastures and on-site observation of different conservation based forage development activities at model villages of Abraha-we-Atsbaha and Atsbi.

The trainees appreciated the hands-on experience on the different practical sessions such as urea molasses block making,the newly introduced technology of treating straw with essential micro-organisms (EM), and practicing comparative yield method of measuring pastureland productivity, identification of different forage plants, discussions with development agents at the model villages visited, learning about hydroponic forage production system- which we proposed as a potential opportunity for landless, jobless young university graduates in urban and peri-urban areas.
Hands-on demonstration of preparation of urea molasses block
Treating straw with essential micro-organisms (EM), a new technique that every one was eager to learn about

Harvesting grass from sample plots for practical demonstration of comparative yield method of measuring biomass production of pasturelands
Harvesting grass from sample plots for practical demonstration of comparative yield method of measuring biomass production of pasturelands

The training method that we followed stipulated that the trainees be active part of the overall activities, and they, in different agro-ecology based groupings, discussed the different constraints of livestock development in Tigray. Based on their experiences, the technical knowledge they obtained during the training and observation of change in feed productivity and overall ecological rehabilitation in the visited model villages, participants of the training asserted that the main challenge for the overall agricultural development and environmental conservation in northern Ethiopia is Freely-grazing huge number of livestock. Whatever, technologies of forage development, no matter how effective or applicable, will not give the required improvement in livestock productivity unless a zero or controlled grazing is introduced to all areas of Tigray. Zero-grazing coupled with enrichment of pasturelands with improved forage species and improvement management of degraded lands has resulted not only in boost of livestock feed but also improved the ecological stability of formerly degraded areas. Another interesting lesson was that farmers do not actually lack the knowledge and kills but the attitude and behavioral change to adopt new technologies and break out of cultural influences. It is repeatedly stated in the group discussion presentations and field visit discussions that the main reason majority of livestock owners in Tigray are not adopting zero or controlled grazing is because they are coerced by rich farmers (those who own large number of livestock) not to vote for the new system. Those who own large number of livestock are reluctant because they are afraid that zero or controlled grazing will disadvantage them more than those owning average or below average numbers of livestock.

Inside one of the formerly degraded gulley, but currently a rehabilitated fodder bank: a result of bio-physical conservation and livestock exclusion
Inside one of the formerly degraded gulley, but currently a rehabilitated fodder bank: a result of bio-physical conservation and livestock exclusion

There was also another interesting output of this training workshop. Based on the common understanding that our ultimate aim was to help local farmers, we agreed that we should be able to talk their language (literally). Therefore we tried as much as possible to avoid the common English technical jargon and terminology that is annoyingly common among many civil servants, bureaucrats and even farmers in Ethiopia. We thought that it is not only immature to use readily and easily translatable foreign terminology while communicating with locals farmers, but is also an indication of the lack of strong theoretical grasp of the subject matter that one fails to translate concepts and terms into local language and context. The whole week was therefore full of interesting debates about new coinages and meanings of technical terminology. Here are some common terms in the field of forage production that we translated and for some coined new Tigrigna words. Anyone can see that Tigrigna is equally and sometimes even more specific and expressive in representing terms and concepts in this specific subject than the English language.
• Feed – ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Forage plant – ዝራእቲ ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Pruning- ምግራዝ
• Nutritive value- ምግባዊ ትሕዝቶ
• Crude fiber – ፅሕግንቲ
• Protein- ሃናፂ ቀለብ
• Carbohydrate- ሓይሊ-ወሃቢ ቀለብ
• Digestibility – ሓቓቓይነት
• Ration- መቑነን
• Ration formulation – ምግባጥ መቑነን
• Pearson’s square method- መይላ ትርብዒት ፒርሶን
• Pastureland – መግሃጫ መሬት ወይ ሰዉሒ
• Protected pastureland – ሕዛእቲ -ሰዉሒ
• Protected hillside (exclousre)- ሕዛእቲ–ግድሚ
• Free grazing – ስዲ -ጋህፂ
• Zero grazing – ባዶ- ጋህፂ
• Controlled grazing- ዉሱን- ጋህፂ
• Silvopasture- ዝተቐናጀወ ምምራት ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Small ruminant – ጤለ-በጊዕ
• Breed – ጭጋረት
• Breed improvement – ምምሕያሽ ጭጋረት
• Cross breed- ድቓላ
• In-breeding- ዓርሰ-ምድቓል
• Carcass weight- ቅሉጥ ክብደት
• Quadrat- ትርብዒት
• Reference quadrat- መወከሲ ትርብዒት
• Calibration quadrat- መዐየሪ ትርብዒት
• Sample – ናሙና
• Equation – ምዕሪት
• Forage biomass estimation – ምግማት ምህርቲ ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Urea molasses block – መላሕሶ
• Essential micro-organism (EM)- ጠቐምቲ ተህዋሲያን
• Crop residues – ተረፈ ምህርቲ ዝራእቲ
• Residue and straw from grains- ሓሰር
• Teff straw- ሓሰር ጣፍ
• Millet straw- ቡቕቡቕ
• bean’s and pea’s residue – ደፈጫ
• Legumes – ኣዕታር
• Concentrates – ምጥን ቀለብ
• Blooming in legumes – ምዕንባብ
• Blooming in grasses – ምስጋን
• Re-seeding –ዳግመ ምዝራእ
• Backyard forage development – ኣብ ገደናን ድሕሪ ቤትን ዝግበር ምምራት ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Undersowing – ኣብ ትሕቲ ዝራእቲ ቃንጫታት ኣዕታር ምዝራእ
• Over sowing- ምዝራእ
• Mixed sowing – ኣዛኒቕካ ምዝራእ
• Gulley rehabilitation – ጉህሚ-ምሕዋይ
• Hydroponic forage production- ሓመድ-ኣልባ ምምራት ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Indigenous fodder trees- ሃገር-ቦቆል ኣእዋም ጠጠም
• Exotic forage species – ባሕሪ-ሰገር ዝራእቲ ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Multipurpose tree- ኩለመዳያዊ ኦም
• Improved forage species- ዝተመሓየሹ ዝራእቲ ቀለብ እንስሳ
• Seed purity- ንፁህነት ዘርኢ
• Seed viability- ቦቓላይነት
• Seed vigorosity- ደንፋዓይነት

Looking for Scholarship, funds, grants? Seven unconventional advice that will maximize your chances of winning

ImageYou might have been told as a student that you have to study hard to make good grades, so that you will win scholarships for better education. It is true, academic records are usually the deal breakers when it comes to winning scholarships and grants. However, there is more to winning scholarships and grants than being a straight-A graduate. Anyone (regardless of their grades and academic status) can use the following uncommon and unconventional advice to maximize their chances of winning!

  1. Get the calls

This seems obvious and direct forward, but one of the common requests I get from friends and students is ‘can you send me a link to a scholarship?’ I found such repeated requests a bit annoying.  If you are serious about applying, you need to get the call when it is new, so that you will have enough time to organize your resources and make application on time. The best way to get relevant and timely calls is to subscribe to scholarship portals, or any website that provides lists and manages scholarships. Most portals are general purpose and may overwhelm you by sending too many lists irrelevant to you. There are however, specific purpose and very organized ones which will only notify you about the most relevant and pertinent calls.  The following are some of the scholarship and other academic information portals that I am subscribed to.  These are specifically for the fields of environment, agriculture and development, but the point is that you can get subscribed to as many portals and directories as possible in your field and get relevant calls on time.

  1. (TerraViva grants directory)
  2.  (tropical biology association bulletin board)
  3. (Plat form for African-European Partnership for Agricultural Research Development)
  4.  (this is usable only be if your institute or your company is subscribed, but contains one of the most comprehensive funding database with tools for locating and searching the most specific scholarships.
  5. (contains timely opportunities on climate change and current global research issues)
  6. Create Google alerts for specific requirements on specific issues for example Quota PhD scholarship Agriculture
  7. Find the web pages of organizations or foundations that provide scholarships. and then like them on face book, or follow them on twitter. Every time these organizations post something new, you will be able to see them on your pages.

2. Apply to as many calls as you can.

Applying to a scholarship/fund takes a lot of time, mental and physical resources that people usually get frustrated and end up not applying at all. Someone once said that ‘If I want to achieve one thing, then I need to do ten things’.  This means that it is only logical to expect a positive response to your application after you make multiple applications.

However, the problem with this advice is that you may not be able to get as many calls in your field as you may have wanted, but you can solve this problem by practicing my sixth advice on being professionally flexibly adaptive

3. Pay attention to little details

Scholarships, funds, and grant application evaluation committees are at first glance looking for someone who is ‘really’ interested in getting the opportunity and someone who takes the opportunity as his or her only chance for success. Therefore, at the beginning they look for someone to reject, someone who seemed to have applied for the sake of applying. They usually know this by the level of care and assiduousness the applicant show or do not show in the application. Make sure you followed every bit of instruction and detail requirements even those that seem trivial such as number of words, font types and sizes, dressing code at the interview etc.

4. Motivation letter is about you

One of the common problems I see in applicants who ask me to edit their motivation letters is that they write too much about their field of study, the problems in their countries and other general issues in their field of specialization. Do not get me wrong, I think these issues should always be part of motivation letter, however, the evaluation committee probably know more about your field of study than you do. They are not looking for an explanation on why your profession is important to your country. They are looking for why it is important for you to study this particular field at the particular university you are applying to. They want to know if you have personal reasons that are strong enough to enable you to persist with interest, commitment and determination though out the scholarship, grant or fund time.

Therefore, even if, why your specific profession or research question is important to your ‘poor’ country should be part of your motivation letter, you definitely have to devote most part of the motivation letter for showing your personal reasons for applying to a specific course or fund. In the end everyone knows that the loss of a close friend or relative to heart attack is a stronger reason to peruse a research profession in cardiology than an increasing global trend in the number of deaths to heart attack.  Therefore, next time when you write your motivation letter try writing ‘I always wondered why the green lush mountains that I used to watch when I was a kid are no more there…..’ than saying land degradation has reached alarming rates in my country.’

5. Get to know your Fund sources

Before starting to fill the application forms, read the ‘about us’ sections of the scholarship, fund and grant sources’ websites. Read about past graduates, alumni and even staff member professional profiles. You can even get an email or phone number of the alumni and ask about something you can’t understand or get from the information given in the websites. It is actually helpful to read the FAQ sections than it appears to be. Get the enquiry email and ask question you still have after exploring the websites and asking some alumni.

Getting to know the scholarship or fund sources will help you to ‘speak’ their language and fit into their domain. For instance, you might have earlier worked in an office or organization which works on forestry, but if the scholarship requires experience on community based natural resource management, then you can try to emphasize and illuminate, the part of your previous job where community based management has been practiced. You may also deliberately (specifically) list courses you took related to community based natural resource management.

I can understand that some people may find manipulating your experiences and professional profile as unethical, but I believe emphasizing part of your experiences and skills, so that, you fit to certain required domain is a smart way of selling yourself without lying about yourself. In a nutshell, I am trying to say that you should be flexible in terms of the specificities of your professional specialization and inclination. This takes me to my next advice on professional flexible adaptability.

6. Be professionally –flexibly adaptive

We are in an age where complex global problems such as climate change, economic crisis necessitated favoring multi and inter disciplinary professionals over scholars with narrowly closed specialist professions. Therefore, you might have better chance of being selected for a fund or other opportunities not directly related to your own professions, if you are able to show and establish the connectedness of your skills and experiences to other professions.  The larger the domain of fields you are able to establish connection to yours, the better your chances of getting opportunities. 

This way of thinking will not only broaden the opportunities of funds and scholarships to which you can apply, but will also increase the horizons of your professional domains, helping you to think of your knowledge and skills in new dimensions.  For instance, are you a mathematician, then there is nothing wrong in applying for a scholarship in political science, as you can perfectly do modeling of human political behavior with little help or reading on political science and human behavior. Are you an economist, then a scholarship in development and environment could be for you, as you can work on economic theories explaining human use of resources and thus effect on environment.  Are you a historian, then why not apply to a scholarship in pedagogy? May be you can bring new dimension of knowledge by comparing historical pedagogic models with contemporary ones. All in all, I believe there is no limit to the type of profession you can relate to yours, as all sciences are ultimately meant to serve human beings, and in some way or another have common objective.  

7.  Care for your digital identity

Whether you like it or not, in this digital age, most people have dual identity; the real identity (who you really are) and the digital identity (who you appear to be from what you share online).  Since more people have access to the internet than access to you in person, then your digital identity is way too famous than you really are. In other words, your digital identity is what many people think who you really are.  

Scholarship, fund and grant applications evaluators, and companies are being increasingly dependent on the internet to know more about applicants. For instance an applicant may have excellent resumes, credentials etc., but if he/she shares racist, offensive, politically wrong, unethical and other irresponsible  contents in their online accounts, then the evaluators may develop reservations about selecting that individual despite the impressive paper evidence. I know most people are not so bad online, but your digital identity can be used to maximize your chances of winning a scholarship or any other professional opportunity.  

Therefore, you might as well start to make your digital identity (be it Facebook, page, twitter etc.) look more professional and write responsibly. If you really are interested in the field you are applying to, you may also start to comment on articles, blog posts, etc. related to your profession. Don’t you think it would help if you had given a professionally interesting and valuable comment on an article written by one of the people who are evaluating your application?  Establishing your professional digital identity means that you have to use your real name, adding or following or befriending people and organizations on your field of study and interacting with them responsibly.

I know a lot of people use Facebook or many other online accounts for personal interests. It is okay, you can still continue to use it for both, but if you think your personal interests are too personal to  share with those you want to connect professionally, you might need to create a separate account. I personally found it convenient to use Facebook for personal and general purpose connection while using twitter for more professional stuff. 

Good luck with your applications. Please feel free to comment and ask any question regarding scholarships and application.  I would be glad to share more advice from my colleagues who also have extensive scholarship and fund application experiences.

In Ethiopia, drawing a “road map” to a carbon-neutral future | CIFOR Forests News Blog

In Ethiopia, drawing a “road map” to a carbon-neutral future | CIFOR Forests News Blog.

In this video, CIFOR scientist Habtemariam Kassa examines the challenges facing Ethiopia’s forests as the country grapples with infrastructural expansion, climate and demographic changes, and the government’s goal of having a carbon-neutral economy by 2025.

Along the way, the Center for International Forestry Research is assisting the government in creating a “road map” to develop the forestry sector — and to help policymakers “make decisions that matter for people in the forests of Ethiopia,” Kassa said.

Ethiopian monastery illustrates multifaceted benefits of integrated livestock and irrigated crops production


Lake Haik in South wollo zone (Photo:ILRI\Mesfin Tefera)

The Estephanos Monastery is on an island in Lake Haik, part of Tehuledere district in South Wollo where LIVES has one of its project sites.  The first church was built in 862 AD; in 1262 AD a monastery was established.

Since then, it delivers spiritual, social and development activities for the inhabitants of the surrounding area. The monks and hermits started agricultural activities to feed  themselves and  then continued to set up a farm enterprise that produces various irrigated fruits (papaya, sugarcane, mango, guava, banana, orange and coffee) and vegetables (cabbage, carrot, and pepper, tomato, onion, potato and spices) both for themselves and the local markets.

The monks also produce livestock – fattened cattle, dairy, poultry and apiculture. They produce forage crops under the fruit trees and feed fruit and vegetable wastes to their dairy and beef animals. They also apply litter from their poultry farm and manure from their…

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